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PA-PIPE Insect Models

Alfalfa Weevil | Apple Maggot | Apple Coddling Moth | Apple Oblique Banded Leafroller
Apple Oriental Fruit Moth | Apple Spotted Tentiform Leafminer | Tufted Apple Bud Moth

Bean Leaf Beetle | Corn Rootworm Development | Gypsy Moth Development
Multivoltine European Corn Borer | Soybean Aphid Development | Univoltine European Corn Borer

Alfalfa Weevil Model

The Alfalfa Weevil model results depict the life cycle development of the insect from the egg through the pupa stage using a degree day model. The model uses a base of 48° F with an upper threshold of 105° F to calculate degree days.

Model Key

Each life stage (Alfalfa Weevil in key) from egg, first through fourth instars and pupa is shown as a color class.

This model indicates how the insect would develop if present in a given location.

Alfalfa Weevil Insect Model Product

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Apple Maggot Model

The Apple Maggot (AM) model results depict the development of the insect during the critical part of its life stage using a degree day model. The model uses a base of 43° F with an upper threshold of 105° F to calculate degree days.

Model Key

The critical development stages (Percent of Critical Development in key) are shown as percent of development ranging from 1 to 100 percent.

This model depicts the development of one generation of Apple Maggot per year.

Apple Maggot Insect Model Product

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Apple Coddling Moth Model

The Apple Coddling Moth (CM) model results depict the development of the insect during the critical part of its life stage using a degree day model. The model uses a base of 50° F with an upper threshold of 88° F to calculate degree days.

Model Key

The progression (Percent of Critical Development in key) through the critical stages of development is shown as percent of development from 1 to 100.

There may be up to three generations in a given year.

Apple Coddling Moth Insect Model Product

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Apple Oblique Banded Leafroller Model

The Apple Oblique Banded Leafroller (OBLR) model results depict the development of the insect during the critical part of its life stage using a degree day model. The model uses a base of 45° F with an upper threshold of 91° F to calculate degree days.

Model Key

The progression (Percent of Critical Development in key) through the critical stages of development is shown as percent of development from 1 to 100 percent.

There may be up to two generations of the insect in a given year.

Apple Oblique Banded Leafroller Insect Model Product

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Apple Oriental Fruit Moth Model

The Apple Oriental Fruit Moth (OFM) model results depict the development of the insect during the critical part of its life stage using a degree day model. The model uses a base of 45° F with an upper threshold of 90° F to calculate degree days.

Model Key

The progression (Percent of Critical Development in key) through the critical stages of development is shown as percent of development from 1 to 100 percent.

There may be several generations in a given year.

Apple Oriental Fruit Moth Insect Model Product

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Apple Spotted Tentiform Leafminer Model

The Apple Spotted Tentiform Leafminer (STLM) model results depict the development of the insect during the critical part of its life stage using a degree day model. The model uses a base of 44° F with an upper threshold of 99° F to calculate degree days.

Model Key

The progression (Percent of Critical Development in key) through the critical stages of development is shown as percent of development from 1 to 100 percent.

There may be up to four generations in a given year.

Apple Spotted Tentiform Leafminer Insect Model Product

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Tufted Apple Bud Moth Model

The Tufted Apple Bud Moth (TABM) model results depict the development of the insect during the critical part of its life stage using a degree day model. The model uses a base of 45° F with an upper threshold of 91° F to calculate degree days.

Model Key

The progression (Percent of Critical Development in key) through the critical stages of development is shown as percent of development from 1 to 100 percent.

There may be up to two generations in a given year.

Tufted Apple Bud Moth Insect Model Product

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Bean Leaf Beetle Overwintering Model

The Bean Leaf Beetle Overwintering model depicts the expected mortality of overwintering adult bean leaf beetles based on accumulated sub-freezing degree days. Colder temperatures produce greater mortality expectations in the population of overwintering adult beetles, decreasing the regional risk of damage and bean pod mottle virus infestations. In spring, adult bean leaf beetles emerge from their overwintering sites in woodlots and leaf litter to feed on native legumes and leguminous crop species, but they strongly prefer soybeans and tend to accumulate in the earliest emerging soybean fields. Spring-emerging adults feed on leaves, injuring cotyledons and young seedlings (V1- or V2-stage), and lay eggs. Their feeding typically causes small round or oval holes in cotyledons and between major veins. Bean leaf beetle can also transmit bean pod mottle virus (bpmv), which causes further yield losses.

Model Key

The estimated mortality is shown as percentage from 1 to 100 percent.

Bean Leaf Beetle Overwintering Insect Model Product

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Corn Rootworm Development Model

The Western Corn Rootworm model results depict the life cycle development of the female insect from the egg stage through oviposition using a degree day model. This model uses 3-inch soil temperatures and a base of 52° F to calculate degree days.

Model Key

Each life stage (Western Corn Rootworm Phenology in key) from egg, first through third instars, pupa, adult and oviposition is shown as a color class.

This model indicates how the insect would develop if present in a given location.

Corn Rootworm Development Insect Model Product

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Gypsy Moth Development Model

The Gypsy Moth Development model results depict the life cycle development of the female insect from the egg stage through the adult stage using a degree day model. The model uses multiple bases depending on life stage to calculate degree days. These bases range from 37° F to 46.6° F.

Model Key

Each life stage (Gypsy Moth Lifestages in key) from egg hatch, first through sixth instars, pupa and adult is shown as a color class.

This model indicates how the insect would develop if present in a given location.

Gypsy Moth Development Insect Model Product

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Multivoltine European Corn Borer Development Model

The Multivoltine European Corn Borer Development model results depict the life cycle development of the insect based on degree day model. The model calculates the development of the over wintering generation (pupa and adult) in spring and subsequent generations as the season progresses. A base of 54.5° F with an upper threshold of 95° F is used to calculate degree days.

Model Key

Each life stage (European Corn Borer in key) from egg, first through fifth instars, pupa and adult is shown as a color class.

This model indicates how the insect would develop if present in a given location. There may be two or three generations per year.

Multivoltine European Corn Borer Development Insect Model Product

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Soybean Aphid Development Model

The Soybean Aphid Development model results depict the life cycle development of the insect using a rate-equations model. The model begins by simulating soybean aphid over-wintering on buckthorn (or other over-wintering host), followed by an active stage, a transition stage from a host to soybean, a period on soybean, a transition from soybean to a host later in the season, and finally an over-wintering stage. The rate equations are temperature dependent. Development is assumed to occur between 64° F and 90° F.

Model Key

Each life stage (Soybean Aphid Development in key) over-wintering, transition to and from soybean, and the number of generations on soybean are shown as a color class.

This model indicates how the insect would develop if present in a given location. Soybean aphid is a fast-developing insect. It is assumed it may be on soybean from the V5 through the R7 stages.

Soybean Aphid Development Insect Model Product

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Univoltine European Corn Borer Development Model

The Univoltine European Corn Borer Development model results depict the development of the over-wintering generation (pupa and adult) in spring and then the following generation from egg to diapause as the season progresses. This model uses a base of 54.5° F with an upper threshold of 95° F for degree days calculation.

Model Key

Each life stage (Univoltine Corn Borer in key) from egg, first through fifth instars, pupa and adult is shown as a color class.

This model indicates how the insect would develop if present in a given location. There is one generation per year. Development is only shown for cooler areas in the region where occurrence is more likely.

Univoltine European Corn Borer Development Insect Model Product

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